Japan has many types of hotels that are quite interesting, some are common in the west while other are uniquely Japanese. One of the obvious is a western style hotel which are like Hilton’s and other chains. So now to the unique ones!
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Ryokan’s are a very traditional type of Inn, dating from the Edo period. They have the traditional tatami floors, some times an onsen(hot spring) and you get to wear a yukata and geta(japanese sandals). A common thing to find inside the rooms are supplies for making tea. The very traditional ones have the futon you sleep on while modern style ones might have a mattress on a platform. Also there is usually a traditional dinner served. If it is a small family owned one you get to enjoyed a home cooked style meal. On the fancier scale it might include a kaiseki meal. The smaller ones you usually share a common bathroom(showers and toilets are always separated in traditional Japanese homes), while the larger ones you will have your own bathroom. You can find ryokans in rural areas but also some in the cities too. Here is a website of ryokans. And here is another.
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Capsule hotels are the budget friendly hotel($20-$40) and for those that are not looking for many amenities. They are stacked on top of each other creating two rows. Most come with a small TV and internet access. For privacy there is a curtain(though it doesn’t eliminate sound) and any luggage can usually be stored in a locker(though I would think most stays are from missing the train at night or drinking too much and needing a cheap place to rest). Bathrooms are communal.
Love hotels were made for the couple that need a place for some private time. Say if you have kids, living with your parents to save money or have a room mate this is the place to go. The interaction with staff is minimal making checking in for the short stay discreet by using buttons to pick the room. Often rooms will be themed like Hello Kitty, Batman, a time period or anything you can think of.